From its county population in 2000 of 7758 to its current population estimate of 7313, the county has experienced a growth change of -445.
Randolph County was created from Lee County on December 20, 1828 and was named for Virginia congressman John Randolph (1773-1833) of Roanoke, one of the more controversial statesmen of the early federal period.
Lumpkin served as the county seat until 1830, when it became the county seat for Stewart County, which was formed from Randolph. Cuthbert was named Randolph's county seat in 1831.
After the Civil War, Randolph County continued its educational reputation when Howard Normal School, established by the American Missionary Association, opened its doors to area African Americans in 1867. Richard R. Wright became the first black headmaster in 1876. During his four-year tenure, he organized the Georgia State Teacher's Association and edited the Weekly Journal of Progress.