From its county population in 2000 of 56162 to its current population estimate of 72087, the county has experienced a growth change of 15925.
The county's name honors Archibald Bulloch, who was president and commander in chief of Georgia in 1776. The county's pioneers sometimes called it the "State of Bulloch." They named their county seat "Statesborough" when the Georgia legislature created it in 1803.
In 1850 slaves made up about a third of the county's population; by 1860 their proportion of the populace had risen to nearly half, due both to a decline in the white population and to a substantial rise in the number of slaves. Most slaves were engaged in raising cotton, the production of which also increased markedly over the same decade.
Between 1890 and 1910, Bulloch County transformed itself into a major agricultural and commercial center, led by aggressive leaders who were new transplants to the county. These newcomers built links to railroads and developed an infrastructure of services.